Who are the Guilty 1984

Who are the Guilty ?
Report of a joint inquiry into the causes and impact of the riots in Delhi from 31 October to 10 November 1984


A fact-finding team jointly organised by one People’s Union for Democratic Rights (PUDR) and people’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) in the course of investigations from November 1 to November 10, has come to the conclusion that the attacks on members of the Sikh Community in Delhi and its suburbs during the period, far from being a spontaneous expression of “madness” and of popular “grief and anger” at Mrs. Gandhi’s assasination as made out to be by the authorities, were the outcome of a well organised plan marked by acts of both deliberate commissions and omissions by important politicians of the Congress (I) at the top and by authorities in the administration. Although there was the handiwork of a determined group which was inspired by different sentiments altogether.PUCL – PUDR Report: Who are the Guilty ?

An interview with Michael Fernandes

An interview with Michael fernandes

The emergency was quite a tumultuous time for their other brother Lawrence though. He was picked up under MISA too, tortured and was once even beaten up using branches of the banyan tree at the CID office in Bangalore. But more than the physical torment, it was the mental anguish he remembers. “He was taken to the railway tracks and they threatened to kill him and dump his body there,” says Michael. “I think at the time of my arrest the police weren’t so desperate, but with Lawrence they weren’t so patient,” he explains.

An interview with Michael Fernandes

How the Emergency Took my Mother Away – Nandana Reddy

snehalata How the Emergency took my mother away - The News Minute

Now on the 40th anniversary, there is suddenly a clamour to remember Emergency and we find that there are just a few who are still alive and wish to do so. But I am grateful that we are remembering at all; especially now that a silhouette of another dictatorship is eclipsing our fundamental rights and undermining democratic institutions. The time has come to gather our forces and protect our rights and our country from tyranny.

– See more at: ://www.thenewsminute.com/article/how-emergency-took-my-mother-away-31525#sthash.0g9XVnk0.dpufHow the Emergency took my mother away | The News Minute

A time for renewal – some forgotten heroes of the Emergency

A time for renewal

An excerpt from the attached article

As we mark the 40th anniversary of the promulgation of the Emergency, we shall hear many politicians speak about their sufferings and sacrifices. L.K. Advani has already spoken, and no doubt other Bharatiya Janata Party leaders will follow. Perhaps we should remind them that Sanjay Gandhi’s wife, Maneka, is one of their cabinet ministers, while his henchman, Jagmohan, is also a senior BJP leader. Moreover, in BJP ruled states like Chhattisgarh, the bullying of the media, and the violation of the human rights of adivasis, are on par with what happened under Congress rule in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh during the Emergency.

On the full-text collection related to the Emergency


Johnson with Gandhi, March 28, 1966. (White House Photo Office)(https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/pl-480)

These texts were contributed by Maya Dodd, Director of the Centre for South Asia at the Foundation for Liberal and Management Education, Pune. Maya Dodd’s PhD, ‘Archives of Democracy: Technologies of Witness in Literatures on Indian Democracy Since 1975′, among other things, dwelt on the literature produced during the Emergency of 1975 in India. Dodd revealed that the literature produced during the Emergency was easier to locate in University libraries in India that had systematically built up their collections in the 70s and 80s, than in the libraries of Delhi. In fact, texts that were sometimes unavailable in India could be traced in the library collections at the University of Chicago. All of these, she said, were stamped with the sign, PL480, Public Law 480, that allowed for the import of wheat from the US by India to be tied to the program for the acquisition of South Asian materials for American libraries.(*) An international financial trade-off of the 1950s periodically unearths treasures for Indian scholars in the US. The following excerpt from a blog post by Amitava Kumar at the kenyonreview has been reproduced for its comment on another encounter with PL480.


There is a short story I like in which a young
man comes to the United States from India and becomes obsessed with
the desire to know everything about the Indian tradition. The story
was written in Kannada by A.K. Ramanujan, who taught for many years
at the University of Chicago. In the story, the young man named
Annayya is amazed at how, unlike him, the American anthropologists
knew so much about Indian culture. Annayya begins to read books
on India: “On the second floor of the Chicago library were stacks
and stacks of those books which had to be reached by climbing the
ladders and holding on to the wooden railings. Library call number
PK 321. The East had at last found a niche in the West.”
The number PK 321 is tied, in my mind, with another
code or number, a cryptic marker of mid-twentieth century globalization.
It is PL 480, short for Public Law 480, 83rd Congress. Beginning
in 1951, the United States provided wheat to India and other newly
independent nations and accepted payment for the grain in local
currency. The money that was “interest payable by the Government
of India on the Wheat Loan of 1951″ was used to fund “cultural exchange.”
In other words, monies to buy Indian books for American libraries
in return for the regulated disposal of wheat from the American
Midwest. The PL 480 library program for India and Pakistan began
in January, 1962. The library at the University of Chicago was selected
by the Library of Congress as one of the top beneficiaries of the
program. The books about ancient Hindu traditions that Ramanujan’s
Annayya was reading concealed a more contemporary exchange involving,
among other things, the regulation on the open market of the price
of thousands of tons of wheat from places like Kansas.
It was after coming to America as a foreign student
that I read “Annayya’s Anthropology” for the first time. For me,
there was even a glimmer of self-recognition in Ramanujan’s description
of Annayya in America: “He read the Gita. In Mysore, he had
made his father angry by refusing to read it. Here he drank beer
and whisky, ate beef, used toilet paper instead of washing himself
with water, lapped up the Playboy magazines with their pictures
of naked breasts, thighs, and some navels as big as rupee coins.”
But, what caught my attention during a subsequent reading was a
detail in Ramanujan’s story: the American anthropologist whose book
Annayya was reading in the Chicago library stacks was a Ford Foundation
fellow in India. In this fact hides the repetition of the link with
PL 480.
Under the National Defense Education Act of 1958,
a South Asia Language and Area Center was started at Chicago; as
a result, the university received substantial Ford Foundation long-term
grants. The same Ford Foundation was, of course, also interested
in grains. India, with help from the Americans, was trying to succeed
at launching the Green Revolution which was to later make grain
transfer to India unnecessary. But, that was not the only aim of
the Green Revolution. The environmental scientist Vandana Shiva
has written that under the Ford Foundation program in India “agriculture
was transformed from being based on internal inputs to being dependent
on external purchased inputs for which credits become necessary.”
The creditor was going to be America. We begin to see the further
irony hidden in Ramanujan’s remark that the East had found a niche
in the West under the call number PR 321: the ghost that lurks beside
that call number is the PL 480 program and the story of American
grains and even gain. As Shiva points out, “The social and political
planning that went into the Green Revolution aimed at engineering
not just seeds but social relations as well.”

Also see:

*Maureen L. P. Patterson, ‘The South Asian P.L. 480 Library Program, 1962-1968′, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Aug., 1969), pp. 743-754

Memoirs of Information Work

The following article was written by Avinash Jha, who has been working on Information and Documentation first at CED Mumbai, and is currently the Librarian at CSDS Delhi. His article, written after the fashion of a memoir, traces the changes in the patterns of information circulation and regulation in a cybernetic era, changing the very definition of a librarian. This paper was presented at the International Colloquium on Information, Society, Politics, History titled ‘Sensor-Census-Censor: Investigating Regimes of Information, Registering Changes of State’ at Sarai-CSDS, New Delhi, India, 30 Nov-1 Dec, 2006.

memoirs of information work

Avinash Jha

A link to the paper is also mentioned at the following forum: <http://www.kicsforum.net/index.php/kicsknowledge-sharing/722-knowledge-in-an-internet-era#Avinash&gt;

The following are the directions to CED Mumbai and Bangalore respectively.

CED Mumbai

CED Bangalore